Nancy ma irs disability article pdf

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Nancy Mairs’ Disability Summary Essay Sample. Nancy Mairs author of Disability- a self-claimed “radical feminist and cripple” with many accomplishments and degrees under her belt, Nancy is known to “speak the ‘unspeakable’” in her poetry, memoirs and essays, especially in Disability which was first published in the New York Times in May 19,  · Analysis of “Disability” Nancy Mairs’ “Disability” is a short story from Carnal Acts that describes how Nancy Mairs, the speaker of the short story, studies the media’s view on is a victim of multiple sclerosis and feels inferior to everyone because she has a audience knows how she feels about this; she feels that handicapped people should be treated. Author of disability Nancy Mairs who’s a feminist and a cripple, has accomplished a lot in writing and teaching. Her remarkable personality shows in many of her essays especially in Disability which was first published in in the New York Heal. Writer of “Disability” Nancy Mairs who's a women's activist and an invalid, has finished a considerable measure in composing and instructing. Her wonderful identity demonstrates in a hefty portion of her papers particularly in Incapacity, which was initially distributed in in the New York Times. In this article, Nancy Mairs. Critical analysis of “Disability” by Nancy Mairs Priscilla Farah May 11, Author of disability Nancy Mairs who’s a feminist and a cripple, has accomplished a lot in writing and teaching. Her remarkable personality shows in many of her essays especially in Disability which was first published in in the New York Times.

FOR months now I've been consciously searching for representations of myself in the media, especially television. I know I'd recognize this self because of certain distinctive, though not unique, features: I am a year-old woman crippled by multiple sclerosis; although I can still totter a short distance with the aid of a brace and a cane, more and more of the time I ride in a wheelchair. Because of these devices and my peculiar gait, I'm easy to spot even in a crowd. So when I tell you I haven't noticed any woman like me on television, you can believe me. Actually, last summer I did see a woman with multiple sclerosis portrayed on one of those medical dramas that offer an illness-of-the-week like the daily special at your local diner. In fact, that was the wholeoioi o oththe owow: atat this poor young woman had M. TRIPLE CRIPPLES - Not Looking Disabled Enough (Part 1) Book: To Live. She is a victim of multiple sclerosis and feels inferior to everyone because she has a disability. The audience knows how she feels about this; she feels that handicapped people should be treated equally. This short story depicts a tone of desperation am attention, but it also expresses strong willingness. The media portrayal of disabled people is limiting and discriminatory and should not occur.

In “Disability,” writer Nancy Mairs discusses the experience of being a disabled person in a Click on the link to view the essay: “Disability,” by Nancy Mairs. Mairs's “Disability” is written for an educated audience, and that means the Disability. As a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis, Nancy Mairs is in a unique posi- .. article in psychology you might consider how the author's theories affect her. May 11, Author of disability Nancy Mairs who's a feminist and a cripple, In this essay, Nancy Mairs shows how disabled people are constantly . In Nancy Scheper-Hughes article she draws on her fieldwork in South. Disability essay by nancy ma irs template free download templates research paper on paper airplanes how to write a comparison and contrast paper giftfest. Waist high in the world nancy ma irs disability essays essay help oberlin creative writing supplemental essays censorship debate essay paper. essay essay on the sidewalk bleeding pdf tim woods essay on beginning postmodernism.

nancy ma irs disability article pdf Third, people may have received the service before the time period covered by the administrative database. Someone being judged solely on their disability without knowing them from the inside is very wrong On Being a Cripple Mairs Merged SSA and Medicare databases are generally not released to outside investigators. Administrative databases are very useful for descriptive purposes e. Martin's Press; She describes it in a sarcastic tone with seriousness and repetition with some very interesting word Dissability a Cripple Related essays In the first paragraph Nancy Mairs wrote how she decided to write an essay quot; On being a cripple quot; Here the reader finds out that the author herself is alit jiwandana tersenyumlah tere cripple as she talks about her cane. more information the amazing transplant 1971 Disability As a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis, Nancy Mairs is in a unique posi-tion to examine how the culture responds to people with disabilities. In this essay from Carnal Acts, she examines the media’s depiction of disability and argues with her usual unsentimental candor that the media must treat disability as normal. Sep 19,  · Save as PDF Page ID ; No headers. In “Disability,” writer Nancy Mairs discusses the experience of being a disabled person in a world focused on the able-bodied. Click on the link to view the essay: “Disability,” by Nancy Mairs. As you read, look for the following. "Disability" Article by Nancy Mairs, to be used for an early writing assignment To print or download this file, click the link below: Disability — PDF document, KB ( bytes).

Administrative data are the by-product of running the health care system: enrolling people in health plans, tracking service utilization, paying claims, and monitoring costs and quality. Although not originally intended for conducting research, administrative data offer significant advantages:. They encompass large groups of people, often entire populations such as all residents of a state , thus enhancing the generalizability of research findings. They represent care practiced throughout the community and are not confined to restricted settings.

Longitudinal, person-level, administrative databases can track study subjects over time and across settings of care. Large numbers of cases help hide individual identities; furthermore, researchers generally conduct studies without knowing the specific identities of the research subjects, thus protecting confidentiality. Numerous health services research studies—primarily examining costs and utilization but also exploring outcomes and quality of care—rely exclusively on administrative data AHCPR , Administrative data do have important limitations, however.

In particular, their principal clinical insight comes from diagnosis codes with questionable accuracy, completeness, clinical scope, and meaningfulness Hsia, Ahern, Ritchie, et al. Administrative data also are often cumbersome to handle and several years out of date.

These and other problems led the former Office of Technology Assessment , 6 to conclude:. Contrary to the expectations expressed in the legislation establishing AHCPR and the mandates of the PORTs, administrative databases generally have not proved useful in answering questions about the comparative effectiveness of alternative medical treatments. Administrative databases are very useful for descriptive purposes e.

Despite these drawbacks, many health services researchers produce productive and insightful findings using administrative data, especially studies relating to payment policy e. This article examines these issues by using administrative data to explore health care experiences and outcomes specifically for persons with disabilities. Depending on the definition of disability, one could argue that many health services researchers have already used administrative data to study people with potentially disabling conditions.

Examples include PORTs relating to back pain, schizophrenia, stroke, hip fracture, and studies of Medicaid services used by children receiving Supplemental Security Income. Under other definitions of disability, however, one could argue equally strongly that studying disability using administrative data is impossible, that the data simply do not contain enough information to identify disability.

But linking administrative data to other data sources, especially survey information, does offer opportunities for studying disability. Here, I first consider definitional issues, then discuss the utility of specific administrative data elements for studying people with disabilities, and finally look at linking administrative data with other information sources.

This presentation assumes that research using administrative data has three major goals:. Defining disability is complex, with multilayered personal, institutional, and societal ramifications Williams Since the 14th century, disability has delineated categories of people meriting assistance—alms, food, shelter.

Separating the deserving from undeserving disabled, therefore, fell to doctors and their theoretically objective medical evidence. Over the last half century, various definitions of disability have appeared for various purposes. Some definitions echo the traditional medical model, while others introduce a new concept, that disability results from social and physical environments that do not accommodate persons with differing physical, sensory, cognitive, or emotional attributes.

That is, people are not disabled; society is Barnes, Mercer, and Shakespeare ; Charlton ; Oliver Few people are satisfied with these definitions. Through recent court cases, the U. Supreme Court is refining the ADA's definition e. United Air Lines, Inc. United Parcel Service, Inc. Williams , The SSA is now reviewing aspects of its disability determination provisions for adults Mathiowetz and Wunderlich Semantic distinctions among disability definitions are sometimes elusive.

Nevertheless, a general understanding now defines disability as difficulty conducting daily activities because of health, sensory, cognitive, and emotional conditions interacting with the social and physical environments.

Disabilities are diverse in their causes, nature, timing, pace, and societal implications. Some potentially disabling conditions are congenital; others are acquired. Some occur suddenly as a result of injury or accident; other arise slowly, with progressive chronic conditions. Some gradually limit functioning but do not threaten life; others hurry death.

Some are visible to outsiders; others are hidden. Some engender stigmatization and blame; others prompt pity and paternalism. The category is simply so broad, and the possible approaches to it so numerous, that all the attempts I've come across at generalizing about it run into difficulty. In addition, being labeled as disabled depends on who is asked. Many people who are born deaf, for example, speak American Sign Language and do not view themselves as disabled, as they can participate fully in a distinct deaf culture Rockow Thus, while outsiders may see a compromised life, people themselves disagree.

Capability typically exceeds performance Young, Williams, Yoshida, et al. Administrative databases do not link information about health conditions with data about performance of daily activities, participation in life situations, and social and physical environmental barriers. Instead, most administrative data report only the diagnostic information attached to specific health care services. Certainly, some diagnoses allow inferences about potential disabilities.

But most diagnoses by themselves convey little about their effects on people's daily activities or the impact of their social or physical environments. Administrative data alone reveal nothing about whether people view themselves as disabled.

As noted below, these data do identify people meeting administrative definitions of disability, primarily persons eligible for Medicare and Medicaid through SSDI and SSI, respectively. These are important populations—almost 6. However, findings from SSDI and SSI recipients may not generalize to other people with similar disabling conditions who, for whatever reason, have neither applied for nor are qualified as disabled under Social Security.

General Accounting Office , The number of applications rises during recessions and falls during times of prosperity Chirikos , , suggesting shifting standards in employment-related disability. In , the SSA processed approximately 1. Nevertheless, administrative data permit certain insights that can produce useful research information about people with disabilities. The findings must be interpreted cautiously, however, acknowledging important limitations in identifying study populations.

Administrative data are what results from overseeing and running the health care system. In some administrative databases, the unit of observation is a specific service such as a hospitalization.

Thirty-six states systematically collect information from hospitals about their discharges Donaldson and Lohr ; Elixhauser, Andrews, Ball, et al. With a few exceptions e. In other databases, mainly those produced while administering health insurance, the unit of observation is the person: individuals are assigned unique identifiers, thereby allowing them to be tracked across care settings covered by the insurer. This article focuses on person-level administrative data produced by both public e.

Some health plans primarily or exclusively enroll people with significant functional limitations, although their populations typically represent small and nonrandom subsets of people with disabilities Master, Dreyfus, Connors, et al. With some exceptions, most health insurance databases contain two types of files: enrollment files, indicating eligibility for the health plan and relevant demographic information; and encounter records, representing individual services or sets of services.

The original reason for eligibility e. Using Health Insurance Claim HIC numbers uniquely assigned to each Medicare beneficiary, researchers can link claims or records from health care encounters to track people over time and across care providers. Most clinical insights from administrative data are derived from claims or encounter records for individual services. Age, residential setting e. In standard administrative data, the most helpful clinical information is.

Standard administrative data are submitted when billing for care fee-for-service insurance plans or as an administrative requirement for capitated plans to report all health care encounters Hornbrook, Goodman, Fishman, et al.

Medicare's managed care organizations MCOs currently must report encounter records only for hospitalizations; additional reporting requirements remain controversial. The best-known examples come from Medicare:. With more than items, it includes cognitive and sensory function, mood and behavior, physical functioning, performance of daily activities, and other health factors Hawes, Mor, Phillips, et al.

OASIS includes living arrangements, supportive assistance, sensory and physical functioning, emotional and behavioral status, equipment management, and other factors Health Care Financing Administration ; Shaughnessy, Schlenker, and Hittle ; Shaughnessy, Crisler, Schlenker, et al.

Rehabilitation hospitals also collect clinical information. MDS data, though, have been produced for more than a decade and have been used extensively in health services research on nursing home residents e. Enriched administrative data represent specific populations that probably contain many persons with disabling conditions.

The nursing home data obviously depict persons with serious impairments; for instance, among roughly 2. General Accounting Office The following discussion concentrates on standard administrative data. As noted earlier, whether these criteria are applied consistently is debatable Kane ; U. Therefore, although Social Security disability status conveys important information, researchers must use this variable carefully.

Employment is an irrelevant standard for children. In their decision for Sullivan v. Zebley , the U. Supreme Court required individual functional assessments for children who did not meet the medical definition. Around that time, the SSA expanded its list of qualifying mental impairments for children from four to 11 categories, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The rolls of children receiving SSI have therefore varied widely over time Ettner et al.

But researchers may also want to know the underlying condition that caused the person to qualify as disabled. The SSA retains information about the major medical reason for disability determinations and disseminates aggregated information about this. For example, in , the SSA awarded benefits to , disabled workers. The most common reason was musculoskeletal problems 25 percent , followed by mental disorders 24 percent , circulatory conditions 12 percent , cancer 10 percent , and disorders involving the nervous system or sensory organs 8 percent Martin, Chin, and Harrison Using the diagnoses on Medicare or Medicaid claims offers reasonable inferences about the underlying medical condition, but this approach has limitations.

Children qualifying for SSI because of mental retardation, for example, rarely generate claims specifically for mental retardation—related services Perrin, Kuhlthau, Ettner, et al. Analyses using Medicaid claims to identify children with mental retardation, therefore, probably underrepresent this population.

On Being a Cripple -By Nancy Mairs common of which are “handicapped” and “disabled.” I made the “Disabled,” by contrast, suggests any incapacity. Nancy Mairs is a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis. In her essay, “Disability”, she explains how the media fails to accurately portray individuals living with a. This is a digitized version of an article from The Times's print archive, before Take it from me: physical disability looms pretty large in one's life. For the next several weeks, the Hers column will be written by Nancy Mairs. Law dissertation abstract bibliography definition of the term paper uk? free essay writing pdf guide essay an interview on independence day. In the passage, Nancy Mairs presents herself as an empowered, intelligent, is simply crippled and not disabled, which “suggests any incapacity physical or.

this Nancy ma irs disability article pdf

In “Disability,” writer Nancy Mairs discusses the experience of being a disabled person in a world focused on the able-bodied. Click on the link to view the essay:​. Two years after the publication of Carnal. Acts, Mairs also played a political role for the disabled at the national level, as one of seven plaintiffs to bring suit against. People -crippled or not-wince at the word "cripple," as they do not at "​handicapped" or "disabled." (10) Perhaps I want them to wince. I want them to see me as a. This is a digitized version of an article from The Times's print archive, before Take it from me: physical disability looms pretty large in one's life. For the next several weeks, the Hers column will be written by Nancy Mairs. University of Arizona. Abstract: This article is an interview and conversation between disability activist and writer Nancy Mairs, and videomaker Janice Dewey​. Nancy Mairs's Autobiographical Essays and the Subject of Disability by While reading various articles on the study of autobiographical practices, I came. Nancy Mairs, for example--are being included more frequently in composition texts which are organized around rhetorical modes and, in one recently published. After the publication of her book, Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity like Nancy Mairs's Carnal Acts, can disrupt societal taboos about what is or is. Request PDF | On Difficult Gifts: A Biographical Portrait of Nancy Mairs | Imagine a Nancy Mairs. Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory. Article.In “Disability,” writer Nancy Mairs discusses the experience of being a disabled person in a world focused on the able-bodied. Click on the link to view the essay: “Disability,” by Nancy Mairs As you read, look for the following: What “points for comparison” does the author use? How does the author go beyond the obvious similarities and differences to surface interesting ideas and. Request full-text PDF. To read the article of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. Nancy Mairs's Waist-High in the World, and Jean-Dominique Bauby's The Diving Bell. Nancy Mairs intentions are to express the truth. She is a forty-three-year-old woman struggling with the devastating illness of multiple sclerosis. Most of her essays and poems are about serious, sensitive subjects including her disability. Nancy Mairs takes a stand for people with disabilities because she is, too, living with a disability. Nancy Mairs is narrating the whole essay which means she used narration style of writing. In this style the writer tells a story. A story has characters, a setting, a time, a problem, attempts at solving the problem, and a solution to the problem. by Nancy Mairs To escape is nothing. Not to escape is nothing. --Louise Bogan The other day I was thinking of writing an essay on being a cripple. I was thinking hard in one of the stalls of the women's room in my office building, as I was shoving my shirt into my jeans and tugging up my zipper. Mar 01,  · This is why Mairs's writing rings so true. To those of us with disabilities, Mairs is a mirror and a model. I'm legally blind and don't know the first thing about getting around in a wheelchair, but I struggle with many of the same barriers that Mairs does daily--from fending off pity to getting people to notice my presence. Jul 09,  · This is a digitized version of an article from The Times’s print archive, before the start of online publication in To preserve these articles as they originally appeared, The Times does.

nancy ma irs disability article pdf